And in those days Peter stood up in the midst of the disciples, and said, (the number of names together were about an hundred and twenty,) Men and brethren, this scripture must needs have been fulfilled, which the Holy Ghost by the mouth of David spake before concerning Judas, which was guide to them that took Jesus. For he was numbered with us, and had obtained part of this ministry. Now this man purchased a field with the reward of iniquity; and falling headlong, he burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out. And it was known unto all the dwellers at Jerusalem; insomuch as that field is called in their proper tongue, Aceldama, that is to say, The field of blood. For it is written in the book of Psalms, Let his habitation be desolate, and let no man dwell therein: and his bishoprick let another take. Wherefore of these men which have companied with us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us, beginning from the baptism of John, unto that same day that he was taken up from us, must one be ordained to be a witness with us of his resurrection.
And they appointed two, Joseph called Barsabas, who was surnamed Justus, and Matthias. And they prayed, and said, Thou, Lord, which knowest the hearts of all men, shew whether of these two thou hast chosen, that he may take part of this ministry and apostleship, from which Judas by transgression fell, that he might go to his own place. And they gave forth their lots; and the lot fell upon Matthias; and he was numbered with the eleven apostles.
There are two schools of thought on what happened in that upper room. Some say that God chose the 12th Apostle by guiding the casting of lots. Others say that the disciples were impatient and acted before the Holy Spirit led them.
We need not look any further than Acts 1 to find the answer. The disciples made a mistake. The fact that Luke records this error adds credibility to his account. A biography that contains only good things is suspect at best!
They understood that God had work for them to do and they were eager to get started. There is nothing wrong with that urgency. However, they had no idea what God was going to do with them.
Not everything the Peter and the others did was wrong. They stayed in Jerusalem. They properly interpreted scripture. They prayed. And they acted in one accord. But they did not wait on the promise of the Holy Spirit. The problem is that they acted to soon and the weren’t thinking big enough.
Just a short time before Jesus told the disciples that they would not only preach in Jerusalem and Judea but also all over the world. From a human perspective, this looks like an impossible task for only 11 men. Therefore, they needed help. But what good would just one manner preacher do? Honestly, not much. Little did they realize that each of them would be able to speak to hundreds in languages they had never studied or even heard before.
When the promise was fulfilled, it became quickly apparent how they would be able to fulfill preaching all over the world!
As further evidence that Matthias was not the 12th Apostle, let us consider the following:
The Bible clearly tells us that there are only 12 Apostles.
And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb.
Paul tells us that he is an apostle is several places.
For I speak to you Gentiles, inasmuch as I am the apostle of the Gentiles, I magnify mine office: